“Flag Day”
Psalm 20:1-5
June 14

On June 14, we celebrate Flag Day, which of course is the American Flag, the “Stars and Stripes,” the “Red, White, and Blue,” or “Old Glory.” Today, even that Flag has become an object for debate and controversy. Is it merely a symbol of white privilege, systemic racism, and social injustice, or is it a symbol of something greater and higher, more noble? So I would like to spend our time today talking about our American Flag, the Pattern, the Pledge and the Palette. I want us to read Psalm 20:1-5.

May the Lord answer you in the day of trouble! May the name of the God of Jacob protect you! May he send you help from the sanctuary and give you support from Zion! May he remember all your offerings and regard with favor your burnt sacrifices! Selah May he grant you your heart's desire and fulfill all your plans! May we shout for joy over your salvation, and in the name of our God set up our banners! May the Lord fulfill all your petitions! (Psalm 20:1-5 ESV)

From its inception, the American flag has been an important part of our nation’s history. Today, we hang it in our schools, fly it in our front yards, and even put it on the moon, but it began as a battle flag. Freedom never comes without a cost, without struggle or sacrifice. Surviving over 240 years, the flag has both physically and symbolically grown and developed.

The American flag is a symbol known worldwide. It has been the inspiration for holidays, songs, poems, books, artwork, and so much more. The flag has been used to display our nationalism, as well as our rebellion, and everything else in between. The flag is so important that its history tells the story of America itself. It represents the freedom, dignity, and true meaning of being an American. It has been with us through our war times, our sad times, but also in times of our greatest joys and triumphs.

That’s what inspired the first Flag Day. A man by the name of Bernard J. Cigrand became known as the “Father of Flag Day” when he held the first recognized formal observance of Flag Day at the Stony Hill School in Waubeka, Wisconsin on June 14, 1885. His parents immigrated from Luxembourg, and Bernard’s dad instilled in him a love and appreciation for the greatness of America. When he was just 12, Bernard worked as a sales agent for the U.S. Book and Bible Club, earning 25 cents for each book he sold. Together with the money he earned as a school teacher, Bernard put himself through dentistry school in Chicago and became a dentist, and in his free time, he would promote patriotism, respect for the flag, and the need for the annual observance of a Flag Day on June 14, the day in 1777 that the Second Continental Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes as the U.S. flag—we will come back to that later.

In June 1886, Cigrand first publicly proposed an annual observance of the birth of the United States flag in an article titled “The Fourteenth of June,” published in the Chicago Argus newspaper. In June 1888, Cigrand advocated establishing the holiday in a speech before the “Sons of America,” a Chicago group. The organization founded a magazine, American Standard, in order to promote reverence for American emblems.
Cigrand was appointed editor-in-chief and wrote articles in the magazine as well as in other magazines and newspapers to promote the holiday.
On the third Saturday in June 1894, a public school children’s celebration of Flag Day took place in Chicago at Douglas, Garfield, Humboldt, Lincoln, and Washington Parks. More than 300,000 children participated, and the celebration was repeated the next year.

Cigrand became president of the American Flag Day Association and later of the National Flag Day Society, which allowed him to promote his cause with organizational backing. Cigrand once noted he had given 2,188 speeches on patriotism and the flag.

By 1916, flag ceremonies on June 14 had become so prevalent that President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation establishing June 14 as National Flag Day. In 1949, Congress passed legislation and President Harry Truman signed it into law making June 14 an annual National Flag Day.


A. Pre-Declaration: The flag went through many variations before becoming the flag we all know and love. Its origin has also been shrouded in mystery for many years. So let’s take a look at the pattern of our current U.S. flag. We have what’s known as the canton or blue field, the stars, and of course, the stripes. So where did the pattern or designs come from?

The earliest use of stripes in flags in what was to become America is from the “Sons of Liberty” flag. The Sons of Liberty were the original “Tea Party” members, the guys that threw the chests of tea overboard into the Boston Harbor. Starting after the Stamp Act in 1765, the Sons of Liberty began their protesting. They came up with a flag that looked similar but with less stripes. This may have been the pattern that contributed to the stripes on our flag.

In 1775, at the beginning of the Revolution, independence had not yet been declared. The Continental Congress was meeting in Philadelphia when a colonel from Virginia came forward in his uniform and was appointed to take command of the troops outside of occupied Boston. That colonel was George Washington. When he left Philadelphia, he took two flags with him. The Grand Union, or “The Continental,” as it was called, was the first flag under which continental soldiers fought. It uses the alternating red and white stripe pattern similar to the Sons of Liberty flag, only there are 13 stripes signifying the 13 colonies. However, notice that instead of stars on a blue field, we have the “Kings Colors,” also known as the “Union Jack.” This flag had a very specific meaning. It meant that we were fighting as 13 united colonies but under British rule. Remember, at this time we had not yet declared our independence.

The other flag that Washington took with him is known as the “Washington’s Headquarters Flag.” As you can see, the entire field is blue. There are 13 stars arranged in five rows of alternating stars of three stars, two stars, three stars, two stars, three stars. However, you will also notice that they are six-pointed stars, a slight difference from the five-pointed star on the current flag. This would be the first use of the star pattern on an American flag and today you can see a copy of this flag hanging in front of Washington’s Headquarters at Valley Forge.

B. Post-Declaration: A year later, on July 4, 1776, Congress declared its independence from Great Britain. From that moment on, we were fighting for our independence. Yet the Continental Congress still did not design a new American flag. That flag came about on June 14, 1777, when the Marine committee presented and the Second Continental Congress passed the first Flag Act, a resolution stating:
Resolved, that the flag of the United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field representing a new constellation.[1]
So who designed the flag? In 1776, you couldn’t go into a store and buy a flag off the shelf or order one from Amazon.com. Back then, flags were made in one of two ways. Since most flags had a naval use, you could go to a ship’s chandlery, which was a store that outfitted ships, and the chandler would contract with a sail maker or in many cases an upholsterer to make the flag. An upholsterer in colonial times had more functions than what we typically think of today. Besides working on furniture, they also made flags and other military equipment. This is where the legend of Betsy Ross comes in to play.

Did Betsy Ross design the first flag? We know that Betsy Ross was born a Quaker, but eloped to marry John Ross, son of the Assistant Rector at Christ Church, an Anglican. We know that John and Betsy sat in pew #12 across from Gen. Washington. We do know she was an upholsterer who made flags for the Pennsylvania Navy. What we don’t know is whether or not she actually designed the first flag. There is a great deal of controversy about this. In 1870, Betty Ross’ grandson was addressing an historic society in Philadelphia and said that his grandmother told him that she met with George Washington and others in June 1776 and had designed the flag. But did she design it or did Francis Hopkinson design it?

What possible role was played by Francis Hopkinson? A signer of the Declaration of Independence from the state of New Jersey, Hopkinson was a church music di­rector and choir leader, and the co-editor of a 1767 hymnal, one of the first purely American hymnals. This work took the 150 Psalms and set them all to music so that we could sing the Psalms, much as King David had done thou­sands of years before. So Hopkinson was a committed Christian. The only hard evidence for the person who designed and made the first U.S. flag is a bill that was submitted to the Continental Congress by Francis Hopkinson that basically said for designing the flag, you owe me a quarter of a cask of public wine.[2] Obviously, Hopkinson was not a Baptist… but he claims that he provided the design and wanted to be paid for it.[3] However, Congress declined, stating that he wasn’t the only one responsible. So that bill remains unpaid, and the originator of the pattern for our flag remains a mystery.  

Regardless of these facts, the legend lives on, and the first flag of the Revolutionary Period is referred to as “The Betsy Ross” flag. The pattern of stars on the blue field is known by three names—The Betsy Ross Pattern, The Philadelphia Pattern, or The Single Wreath Pattern. The blue field on the flag also goes by three names—the field, the union, or the canton. Because Congress did not set the specifics of where the field would be, how the star pattern should look like, or how many points the star would have, during this period, and up until 1912, the stars could be arranged in any manner that a flag maker would choose.

When Congress put together the notion of the flag, they blended the already established design of alternating stripes of red on white signifying the united colonies and a blue field with 13 stars (just like the Washington’s Headquarters flag). Many people believe this may have been the flag that Francis Hopkinson designed, but once again, this is only speculation. This pattern is known as the Cowpens pattern. Another well-known flag during this time was the Easton Flag. Interesting design, right? But remember, Congress did not specify where all of the elements should be placed.

C. Post-Constitution: After the Revolutionary War ended, our country writes a new Constitution as our charter of government. We unanimously elected George Washington to be president, and in 1792 we brought in two new states—Vermont and Kentucky. This begs the question: what do we do with the flag? Because the original flag act called for 13 stripes and 13 stars to represent the 13 colonies, what do we do to signify the adding of two new states to the Union? At this time, Congress passes the 2nd Flag Act, which states that from now on we would add one stripe and one star for each new state.

This new 15-star and 15-stripe flag is known as “The Star-Spangled Banner.” It is this flag that flew over Fort McHenry and inspired Francis Scott Key to write our National Anthem. After the War of 1812 we were adding more states again, and as we incorporated more stars and stripes into the design, our flag was starting to look a little funny.

D. Third Flag Act: So, in 1818, Congress passed the 3rd of the three major Flag Acts. It stated that the design was to go back to the original configuration of 13 alternating stripes of red on white, representing the 13 original colonies, but that we would add one star for each new state. However, once again, it did not specify what pattern the stars should be arranged in or the amount of points that were to be on each star. So we had many variations of flag design during this time.

E. Current Pattern: Finally, in 1912, President Howard Taft established the pattern of stars that we know today. 1) Stars must be five-pointed; 2) Stars had to be in horizontal rows; and 3) The top star point had to be pointing straight up, vertically, or north.

The unique history of the American flag follows the history of our country and reminds us of the triumphant beginning of the United States. The 13 stripes: a symbol of the first 13 colonies. The Second Continental Congress’ original 13 stars gracing the original flag represented “a new constellation,” which has now become 50 stars, a symbol of our country’s 50 United States. As our country grew and developed, so did our flag. Today, our flag continues to carry the inspirational and fundamental convictions of our great nation, and by the grace of God will continue to do so for many years to come.


What about the Pledge to the Flag? The Pledge has a connection with Flag Day as well and is one of the things we should do on this day.

A. Origins: The Pledge of Allegiance was written in August 1892 by Francis Bellamy (1855–1931), who was a Baptist minister and a Christian socialist. Bellamy “believed in the absolute separation of church and state” and did not include the phrase “under God” in his pledge.[4] He was not my kind of Baptist… Anyway, he shares his inspiration for creating the Pledge:

At the beginning of the nineties patriotism and national feeling was at a low ebb. The patriotic ardor of the Civil War was an old story ... The time was ripe for a reawakening of simple Americanism and the leaders in the new movement rightly felt that patriotic education should begin in the public schools. 

Bellamy’s original Pledge read as follows:

I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

The original “Pledge of Allegiance” was published in the September 8 issue of the popular children’s magazine The Youth’s Companion as part of the National Public School Celebration commemorating the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the Americas. Ironically, statues of Columbus are being beheaded and defaced today. But this patriotic event was conceived and promoted by James B. Upham, a marketer for the magazine, as a campaign to instill the idea of American nationalism in students and sell flags to public schools. Upham told his wife:

Mary, if I can instill into the minds of our American youth a love for their country and the principles on which it was founded, and create in them an ambition to carry on with the ideals which the early founders wrote into The Constitution, I shall not have lived in vain.[5] 

The Pledge was supposed to be quick and to the point. Bellamy designed it to be recited in 15 seconds. Francis Bellamy and Upham had lined up the National Education Association to support the “Youth’s Companion” as a sponsor of the Columbus Day observance along with the use of the American flag. The Pledge was first used in public schools on October 12, 1892.

B. Additions: In the years that followed, there were slight adjustments to the Pledge. In 1923, it was changed to: “I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States.” In 1924, the words: “of America” were added. On Flag Day, June 14, 1954, President Eisenhower signed into law the Congressional Act, Joint Resolution 243, which added the phrase “under God” to the Pledge of Allegiance.

Here is the story behind that public act. President Eisenhower was inspired by a sermon titled “A New Birth of Freedom,” preached by Dr. George MacPherson Docherty on Lincoln Sunday at the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in D.C. where Eisenhower had been baptized and was a member. Pastor Docherty had stated:

The pledge of allegiance… should be ‘One nation, indivisible, under God.’ Once ‘under God,’ then we can define what we mean by ‘liberty and justice for all.’ To omit the words ‘under God’ in the pledge of allegiance is to omit the definitive character of the American way of life.[6] 

Eisenhower was convinced, and the pastor’s message went viral. The Catholic Knights of Columbus had been promoting this change for a few years, and even recited the words in their own ceremonies, but this Presbyterian pastor’s sermon put the effort over the top. Congressman Charles G. Oakman (R-Mich.) put forward a bill to add the words to the Pledge. He spoke to it from the floor of the House: “Last Sunday, the President of the United States and his family occupied the pew where Abraham Lincoln worshiped. The pastor, the Reverend George M. Docherty, suggested the change in our Pledge of Allegiance that I have offered.”[7] The Senate ultimately followed suit with a companion bill proposed by Senator Homer S. Ferguson (R-Mich.). Appropriately, Eisenhower signed the legislation on Flag Day, declaring:

From this day forward, the millions of our school children will daily proclaim in every city and town, every village and rural school house, the dedication of our nation and our people to the Almighty. To anyone who truly loves America, nothing could be more inspiring than to contemplate this rededication of our youth, on each school morning, to our country’s true meaning… In this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America’s heritage and future; in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which forever will be our country’s most powerful resource in peace and war.[8]
President Eisenhower then stood on the steps of the Capitol Building, on Flag Day, and recited the Pledge of Allegiance for the first time with the new phrase:

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

The sermon that inspired the addition of “under God” to the Pledge on Flag Day is a lost episode in American history. OK, so we’ve talked about the pattern of the flag, and the Pledge to that flag. What about the palette of the flag? What do the colors mean?


When the Second Continental Congress adopted the flag resolution on June 14, 1777, the Stars and Stripes were born. Yet the resolution never said a word about the significance behind the choice of red, white, and blue as the colors. And for good reason. The three colors did not have any official, designated meaning when the flag was adopted in 1777.

However, these colors and their significance still trace back to the birth of the country, and had very specific meanings in the creation of the Great Seal a year earlier in 1776. On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress passed a resolution authorizing a committee to develop a seal for the country. The committee (Adams, Jefferson, and Franklin) was instructed to draw up a seal that reflected the Founding Fathers’ beliefs and values, as well as the sovereignty of the new nation. Red, white, and blue were chosen, and the Great Seal was officially adopted on June 20, 1782.

Charles Thomson, Secretary of the Continental Congress, explained the significance to Congress when he presented the Seal.  On the front: “E Pluibus Unum” (“Out of Many, One”). And on the back: “Annuit Coeptis” (“Providence has approved of (our) undertakings”). “Novus ordo seclorum” was freely taken from Virgil and is Latin for “a new order of the ages.” Interestingly, Franklin chose a scene from Exodus, described in his notes as:

Moses standing on the Shore, and extending his Hand over the Sea, thereby causing the same to overwhelm Pharaoh who is sitting in an open Chariot, a Crown on his Head and a Sword in his Hand. Rays from a Pillar of Fire in the Clouds reaching to Moses, to express that he acts by Command of the Deity. Motto, “Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God.”[9] 

Jefferson suggested a depiction of the Children of Israel in the wilderness, led by a cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night for the front of the seal; and Hengest and Horsa, the two brothers who were the legendary leaders of the first Anglo-Saxon settlers in Britain, for the reverse side of the Seal. Adams chose a painting known as the “Judgment of Hercules” where the young Hercules must choose to travel either on the flowery path of self-indulgence or the rugged, more difficult, uphill path of duty to others and honor to himself. Their design ideas were tabled, and two more committees were appointed. Finally, Charles Thomson suggested and Congress approved his design on June 20, 1782, and it is what we have today.

“The colors,” Thomson said at the time, “are those used in the flag of the United States of America. White signifies purity and innocence. Red, hardiness & valour, and Blue… signifies vigilance, perseverance & justice.”[10] That is the only thing in the official record to tell us of the meaning of the colors.

A. Blue: Thomson said BLUE signifies vigilance, perseverance, and justice.

B. White: Thomson said WHITE signifies purity and innocence. And the stars are white. The House of Representatives’ 1977 book about the flag states: “The star is a symbol of the heavens and the divine goal to which man has aspired from time immemorial; the stripe is symbolic of the rays of light emanating from the sun.”[11]
C. Red: Thomson said RED means hardiness and valour. President Reagan proclaimed 1986 the Year of the Flag, declaring: “The colors of our flag signify the qualities of the human spirit we Americans cherish. Red for courage and readiness to sacrifice.”[12] That is what I think of when I see the red of the flag. Certainly, that is the message of the most reproduced photograph in history, Raising the Flag at Iwo Jima, which inspired the Marine Monument in D.C.

Let me tell you the story behind the picture. This small volcanic island called Iwo Jima (meaning “sulfur island”) was very strategic. It was Japanese soil located mid-way between Japan and American bomber bases in the Marianas Islands. We were able to hit Japan with long-range bombers. But the short-range fighters that protected the bombers didn’t have long enough range to protect the bombers as they flew over Japan. As a result, Japanese fighter planes were able to attack our bombers pretty much unchecked. Iwo Jima had three airfields. And being able to use this island as a stopover point was essential. So the objective was to take it.

The Japanese knew of the strategic nature of this island. And their plan was to make it too costly in terms of human lives for the Americans to take. The Japanese had built 1,500 rooms underground, connected by 16 miles of tunnels! The Japanese strategy called for “no Japanese survivors.” They planned to fight to the death.

Bombers pounded Iwo Jima with the longest sustained aerial offensive of WW II. But because of the underground rooms and tunnels, the bombing had little effect. 22,000 Japanese soldiers were underground and prepared to die in defense of Iwo Jima. The U.S. sent more Marines to Iwo Jima than to any other battle—110,000 in 880 ships (40 days from Hawaii to Iwo Jima).  After the planes dropped their bombs and the Navy pounded the Island with artillery, the Marines landed. But they were unable to dig quick foxholes in the loose volcanic ash. They were sitting ducks for the hidden Japanese gunners.

The battle was very unique. With 100,000 men fighting on a tiny island for 36 days, Iwo Jima was one of the most populated 7.5 miles on earth. The Marines had to fight for every inch of land and suffered high casualties. With the Japanese soldiers fighting from below ground, the Americans rarely even saw their enemy.

Easy Company, the company that raised the flag in this famous photograph, had a 75 percent casualty rate. In 36 days of fighting, there were 25,851 U.S. casualties (1 in 3 were killed or wounded). Of these, 6,825 American sons were killed. Virtually all 22,000 Japanese perished. More U.S. Marines earned the Medal of Honor on Iwo Jima than in any other battle in U.S. history.

The flag raising happened on an extinct volcano called Mount Suribachi, a high point some 550 feet above the sea. At the time that Easy Company raised the flag, the fighting had only gone on for four days. Up to this point, Easy Company had already had a 40 percent casualty rate. Some of the men who raised the flag would soon be dead. Originally, there were five Marines and one Navy Corpsman. Yet none of these men are identified on the monument. There is only an inscription, a quote by Admiral Nimitz, that reads: “Uncommon Valor was a Common Virtue.”

It is because of the Navy medic, John Bradley, better known by the Marines as “Doc,” that we know much more about the heroes hoisting that flag. His son, James Bradley, wrote the New York Times best seller Flags of Our Fathers that was made into a movie. In it, he tells us it wasn’t until after his dad’s funeral that he learned about the heroism of these men, including his dad. James knew his dad was in the famous photo, but not much else because he hardly spoke of it. When James was told by his teacher that his dad was a hero, Mr. Bradley told his son: “I want you always to remember that the heroes of Iwo Jima are the guys who did not come back... Did NOT come back.”

It was at Bradley’s funeral in January 1994 that his wife and children first learned that he had been awarded the Navy Cross for what happened after the flag-raising at Iwo Jima.

Corpsman Bradley rescued a wounded Marine who was pinned down by machine-gun fire. He first dodged what could literally be called a “murderous fusillade.” He then shielded the wounded man with his own body while treating him, and then pulled him to safety through another fusillade. For these actions, he was awarded the nation’s second-highest decoration for valor. Yet he never told his family. In his mind, that’s what anyone else would do. Again: “Uncommon Valor was a Common Virtue.”

In the days following the funeral, James set off on a four-year quest to find out: Why these young men? What produced that uncommon valor? After speaking to survivors and examining the archives, he came to the conclusion that he had been looking at it the wrong way. He had focused on the “uncommon valor” when he should have focused on the “common virtue.”

What produced their heroic actions was a common background of growing up poor during the Great Depression, strong moms, and religious faith.[13] In fact, three were Catholics, including James’ dad. One went to a Baptist church with his mom and girlfriend. Another was a strictly observant Seventh Day Adventist. Another, a Pima Indian, was raised Presbyterian.

Only two of these young men walked off the island. A third, Bradley, was carried off on a stretcher with shrapnel in his side. The other three died and were buried on Iwo Jima.

The first one putting the flagpole in the ground, Harlon Block, a star high school football player from Texas, was hit by a mortar round and died with his intestines in his hands at age 21.

The third one, Sargent Michael Strank, a tough immigrant from Czechoslovakia, was a Marine’s Marine. A shell tore a hole through his chest, and he was the oldest who died at age 24.

The fifth one, first on the other side, was Franklin Sousley, a red headed, freckle-faced farm boy from Kentucky, was killed by a Japanese sniper’s bullet in the back at age 19. When the telegram reached his mom back in Hilltop, it is said she wept so loudly her neighbors heard her a quarter of a mile away.[14]

When I think of their service and sacrifice, the words of Scripture always come back to me: “This is how we know what love is: Jesus Christ laid down his life for us. And we ought to lay down our lives for our brothers” (1 John 3:16). These men showed uncommon valor because they shared a common virtue: the willingness to lay down their lives for their brothers.

That is what the flag represents. The flag is not an idol to be worshipped, but it is more than a piece of fabric. It represents who we are as a people, as Americans. It is a sign of our values of God and Country. It is a symbol of the sacrifices our brave men and women make who wear the uniform of our Armed Forces. It is an emblem of freedom to all the world! So, as we celebrate Flag Day, remember the sacrifices made by those who serve beneath that flag, and whose coffins are draped by that flag, who purchased our freedom with their blood, symbolized by the red of that flag.

God bless you, and may God continue to bless America!

  [1] Saturday, June 14, 1777. In Journals of the Continental Congress, p. 464.
   [2] Debra Hess, The American Flag (Benchmark Books, 2008), 21.
   [3] George E. Hastings, The Life and Works of Francis Hopkinson (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1926), 240.
   [4] Susan Jacoby, Freethinkers: A History of American Secularism (New York: Metropolitan Press, 2004), 287.
   [5] See Margaret S. Miller, I Pledge Allegiance (Boston: The Christopher Publishing House, 1946).
   [6] http://old.post-gazette.com/downloads/20020820sermon.pdf
[7] Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 84th Congress, Volume 102, Part 3 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1956), 3532.
   [8] Dwight D. Eisenhower: “Statement by the President Upon Signing Bill To Include the Words ‘Under God’ in the Pledge to the Flag,” Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project, June 14, 1954 (at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=9920).
[9] William B. Willcox, ed., The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 22:562-63.
   [10] Charles Thomson's design for the Great Seal of the United States, 1782; Reports of Committees of Congress; Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention, 1774-1789, Record Group 360; National Archives.
   [11] https://swampland.time.com/2013/07/04/why-the-u-s-flag-is-red-white-and-blue/#:~:text=The%20House%20of%20Representatives'%201977,light%20emanating%20from%20the%20sun.%E2%80%9D
[12] Ibid.
   [13] James Bradley and Ron Powers, Flags of Our Fathers: Heroes of Iwo Jima (Bantam, 2006).
   [14] Michael T. Powers, Heart Touchers: Life-Changing Stories of Faith, Love, and Laughter (Booklocker.com, 2004), 56.